I.  The breeding programme for mangalica pig breeds

A) Area of Supply

Gene-preserving breeding plants all over the territory of the Republic of Hungary that meet the requirements laid down in the law on animal husbandry and amended by the related regulatory statute, and which are a member of the recognised breeding organisation of mangalica breeds.

 

B) A Review of breeds

The breeds that are bred:

  • Blonde mangalica
  • Swallow-bellied mangalica
  • Red mangalica


The mangalica pig breed is the typical lard-type pig, which emerged in the Carpathian basin in the course of the 19th century. Its undemanding nature, good lard producing capacity made it known all over the world in its time. It was the curly bristled Sumadia breed that took part in the formation of the blonde mangalica breed in the 1830’s. The swallow-bellied mangalica breed was established later from the cross-breeding of mangalica pigs and szerémségi pigs. The latest breed is the red mangalica one, which is the result of the cross-breeding of mangalica pigs with Szalontai type pigs as well as by using Újszalontai type pigs cross-bred with mangalica pigs at the beginning of the 19th century.

The Hungarian mangalica pig is of medium body size. When it reaches maturity the following dimension are characteristic:

 

Sex Age (year) Withers height (cm) Body weight (kg)
Sow 1 64-67 90-100
2 72-73 120-140
3 74-77 140-160
Boar 1 65-70 100-120
2 75-80 130-150
3 80-85 150-170

 

The bristle colour of the blonde mangalica breed shows a variety ranging from grey through yellow to yellowish-red, with the yellowish and reddish discolouration brought about by keeping and soil conditions (Pictures 1 and 2)

The bristle of the red mangalica is darker or lighter reddish-brown pictures 3 and 4).

The bristle of the swallow-bellied mangalica breed is black on the sides and the back, while the lower part of the body, the belly and the chops are either black or silver-grey extending as far as the corner of the mouth. The tail is also white while the tail tassel is black (pictures 5 and 6).

The bristle of mangalica pigs is pigmented greyish-black, the natural body openings and the rooting ring are black, and the nipples and nails are also black.

On the lower edge of the ear there is a light coloured (3-5 cm diameter) mark showing a gradual transition on the pigmented skin, which is the so-called “Wellman spot”, a variety-specific feature of the mangalica breed.
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Picture 1: Blonde mangalica boar   Picture 2: Blonde mangalica sow
     
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Picture 3: Red  mangalica boar   Picture 4: Red mangalica sow
     
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Picture 5: Swallow-bellied mangalica boar   Picture 6: Swallow-bellied mangalica sow

The bristle of the breed is thick, curly, shavings-like in winter and finer, shorter and more smoothly running in summer. The shavings-like bristle is again part of the breed’s specific features with the ring-like heavily curling bristle and coarse straight bristle along the back-line or the sides being undesirable. Too fine, woolly bristle is not desirable either. The coarse bristle, the black bristle ends on the Blonde mangalica and the black hairs lining the ears are signs of the occurrence of alien breeds of the ancestors of the individual pig.

The head is medium-long and the back of the nose forms a slightly broken line.
The ears are medium-large and tip forward.
The eyes are brown, the eyebrows and eyelashes are black.
The root of the tail is characteristically thick and the tail tassel is always black.
The minimum number of nipples is 5 normally developed nipples on either side.
The line of the back is slightly curved; the loin is short or medium-long.
The bone–structure is fine but the bones very hard.

 

Undesirable defects in breed specific characteristics:

  • Light or pink coloured skin in the belly area
  • Un-pigmented body openings
  • Dark-brown bristle-ends
  • Ears spotted with brown or black bristle
  • Either too fine or too rough bristle
  • Too little upright or too big hanging ears

Defects in breed specific characteristics that are not allowed:

  • Well-defined white spots on the skin
  • Black or brown spots in the bristles
  • Yellow or yellow-striped nails
  • Pink nipples
  • Totally white tail tassel
  • White eye-brows or eye-lashes

 

Breeding Objective

To preserve the genetic and phenotypic appearance of the mangalica pig in an unchanged form. In all three varieties this requires the maintenance of breed specific inner and outer characteristics in a way that the stock should preserve its variety of form at the least possible gene losses and at the same time inbreeding should possibly be avoided.

The lard type pig established at the beginning of the 1900’s be maintained and its good adaptive capacities to natural keeping conditions and resistance should be preserved. Within the limits characteristic of the breed good growing and reproducing performance should be achieved. In the traditional group-keeping social behaviour and favourable temperament are indispensable.

It is also an important objective that the sow stock should reach the internationally accepted minimum of 1000 heads at the same time maintaining a proportional line division and cease to belong to the category of endangered species. In order to achieve this, utilisation projects meeting the original breeding objectives of the mangalica pig and resulting in a marketable product that can address special demands.

 

C) Classification of stock farms

1. The maintenance of the purebred stock farms

  • Nucleus stocks (in the system of the register this is a farm classified as class 1or category A). In gene preservation this is a stock farm designated to maintain lines and to produce boars, where pigs listed in the main part of the register are kept under in situ conditions. In either sex the replacement of the designated lines is conducted through a strict purpose-mating system. The stock farm is kept under an authentic control of the register and the data are obligatorily kept in a computerised register.

    Since the most important genetic value of the breed is concentrated in the nucleus stock farms the exploration and procedures related to the values of the genetic reserves of the breed as well as their utilisation have to be done in a closed register through research and development with the involvement universities and research institutions.
  • Propagating farms (class 3 or category “B” farm). In gene preservation they serve as background stock farms with the basic task of producing rood sows. In this farm it the breeding of purebred pedigree stock listed in the main part of the register that is conducted under in situ conditions. Here it is ensured that the mating plans are observed and professional production of the replacement stock is conducted. The stock farm is kept under an authentic control of the register and the data are obligatorily kept in a computerised register.

  • Commodity producing farm (class 4 or category “C” farm). The stock is kept under authentic control of the register but it does not directly involved in gene preservation and the animals leaving the farm do not get certificates of origin. The production of commercial pigs in this farm is conducted in a purebred fashion or by cross-breeding according to the breeding program of the association. The replacement of sow is allowed for own purposes according to the principles laid down by the head breeder. In accordance with a separate regulation the association certifies that the pigs produced belong to the mangalica breed or if the animals are cross-bred the blood ratio. Commodity producing farms are obliged to keep the records as specified in the regulations. Data for insemination, propagation and origin have to be recorded in a computerised register. Keeping and feeding may differ from the in situ conditions in ways determined by MOE. Commodity production provides nucleus and propagating farms an opportunity to earn incomes by selling pedigree stock.

Classes 1 and 3 are approved by MezőgazdaságiSzakigazgatásiHivatal (MGSZH) under the recommendation of the Hungarian National Association of Mangalica Breeders. Stock farms are placed in category 4 by MOE.

In the case of commodity producing farms the conditions under which and for which generation certificates are origin of final product mangalica pigs are issued by MOE, have to be put down in writing at the acceptance of the farm. A minimum requirement, for example, is the use of boars that have certificates of origin. A class 4 stock farm can go ahead and become a class 3 or 1 stock farm.

The exploration and utilisation of the gene stock

No pedigree stock is involved in the register from the domestic scattered stock or commodity producing stock.

From incidental import stocks, in the case of mangalica pigs entered into the main register, male and female individuals may be involved in breeding in order to produce new lines or on the basis of some other characteristic that is important for gene preservation on the basis of the recommendation of the breeding organization and the approval of MGSZH in accordance with the following:
  • Judgment of conformation (minimum a mean average score of 3)
  • Judgment of conformation of progeny, no breed specific defects appear in the course of the review
  • Permanent marking (ear notch, ear tag)

 

2. Commodity producing cross-breeding

Commodity producing cross-breeding are always conducted in the way that mangalica sows are mated with duck boars which produce piglet with a 50-50% blood ratio in the F1 generation and these can be used solely to produce pigs for slaughter.

Unplanned use different mangalica breeds and cross-breeding systems within one stock at the same time are not allowed. After conciliation with the stock farm the head of breeding puts down in writing and approves of the ideas concerning the keeping, feeding and sales regimes of the given farm, the observance of which is obligatory for the farm afterwards. In the case of any deviation from the approved regime MOE refuses the issuance of the certificate of mangalica origin for slaughter pigs.

The production of cross-bred final product porkers does not jeopardize gene preservation.

 

D) Breeding method

Purebred breeding by maintaining the genetic and phenotypic variety, for which OMMI (Nation-al Certificating Institute for Agriculture) is to develop a mating schedule taking into account the stock size of the individual farms, the mating methods applied and the number of available strains. Breeding is aimed at increasing heterozygosis so that the involvement into breeding programmers of the offspring of the breeding animals, which meet the standard criteria, laid down for the particular breed be ensured. Endeavors have to be made that at least one offspring from both registered sows and boars be included in the breeding regime. When designating replacement animals, over-favoring certain stock farms and animals is to be avoided in order to prevent inbreeding and to preserve all the genetic variants.

Mating schedule:

In each breeding year and for each breeding farm one mating schedule is to be prepared for each individual of the farm whose origin is known and whose animal health status is clear.

The mating schedule should include:

  • The individual number and ear-tag number of each sow and pork ling to be mated,
  • The individual number, identification and name of each boar to be used,
  • The mating method.

Sows and pork lings of unknown origin or ones that are excluded from breeding for any other reason may be cross-bred with boars from other breeds for purposes of commercial production on gene-reserve plants if written permission is obtained from MOE.

The use of accepted mating methods is to be permitted by the registered breed keeper with knowledge of the local conditions.

Individual mating:

The sows and the boar to serve are kept separately and are mated individually.

Harem-like mating:

This is the most generally applied method, in the course of which the sows are assigned to the boar and they are kept together in groups.

In the case of either method the general requirement is that there should be one or two substitute boars from the ranks of the ones designated to serve (if there are any available) for each boar to serve and it has to be made sure that the basic breeding data (mating time, expected littering and weaning times) can be recorded.

Artificial insemination:

This is a method used in exceptional cases and is subject to the permission of MOE. The use of synchronizing agents for sows is only allowed in exceptional cases (research, experiment).

 

1. Methods for maintaining lines

The maintenance of the breeds is done by separation lines as regards their paternal origin. In well-reasoned cases the unification or division of genealogical lines and the development of new lines is decided by MGSZH with the involvement of the breeding association (MOE). The names of the lines are registered in the coding system of the computerized registration system and belonging to a particular line is recorded by the system.

The maintenance of the lines in mangalica stocks is an important factor since lost lines cannot be replaced. In 2008 the following lines and related boar numbers were on the records:

 

Breed Number of lines Number of boars
Blonde mangalica 9 210
Swallow-bellied mangalica 11 57
Red mangalica 7 75

 

The lines within the individual breeds are contained in annex 1.

The basis for the maintenance of the breed is provided by the nucleus and the propagating farms/stocks. Within the in situ breed farms the nucleus stocks are determined by the management of MOE.

In line maintaining and boar producing (nucleus) stock farms the number of young boars and to be produced and their inclusion in the breeding program is decided by MOE on the basis of the Breeding Committee so that inbreeding should be avoided and genetic variability should be maintained.

Young boars may only be sold on the basis of the individual judgement conducted by the Breeding Committee.

Gilts can be sold from nucleus and propagation class stock farms provided their animal health status is good.

Mangalica breeding stock gilts can only be exported and imported by authorisation from MOE and MGSZH.

The survival and stability of breeds largely depends on the number of lines within one breed and the number of sows and boards within the breed. MOE has the task to preserve genes side by side with ensuring the genetic stability and variability of the different lines

In accordance with the above and considering the current compositions of the breeds more boars have to be included in the production in order to ensure the balance as follows: Blonde mangalica lines Pécs, Bácska, Vasvár and Halmaj, Swallow-bellied mangalica lines Csatár, Veszprém, Bicskás and Jász, Red magalica lines Bihar and Déva.

The preservation of genetic lines is an extremely important part in gene preservation since over 50% of the lines that existed earlier have become extinct. The preservation of lines and the maintenance of a genetic equilibrium are especially important in the case of all the three mangalica breeds also because inbreeding can be avoided by rotating male lines, which should be taken into consideration when compiling the mating plan. The principles and advantages of selection and combination breeding are also to be considered when preparing the mating plan. In the course of selection it is the reproduction performance; faultless breed type and adequate conformation are the factors to be considered.

The opportunity to increase the number of lines is available by importing animals from the traditional breeding regions that extend beyond the borders of the country.

The establishment of families of sows with adequate numbers can be executed depending on continuously increasing the registered stock.

Winding up stock farms

When a stock farm is wound up for no animal health reasons MOE save the most valuable pedigree stock from nucleus stocks and makes efforts to transfer them to other nucleus stocks.

 

2. The rules of propagation

The mating of young sows is allowed at a minimum age of nine months provided they have reached a body weight of 90 kg. With boars, mating time starts at the age of one year and a body weight of 100 kg live weight.

Provision for replacement stock

After each sow which has two ancient lines in their origin, and if all external characteristics exceed three points in value, and were mated with the boar indicated in the mating schedule, there should be a minimum of two female piglets left for replacement per each litter.

In the case of boars (breeding class 1) the requirement is the rearing of two boars per year from a minimum of two purpose-matings.

If a boar of an exceptional value and conformation appears in a propagating stock, it can be transferred to a nucleus stock under the recommendation of the Breeding Committee.

The mating of animals involved in the breeding programme with boars from other breeds is not allowed as long as the replacement of the mating parent animals has not been made sure.

Propagating material to be stored in the gene bank

The placement of the propagating material and genetic samples to be stored in the gene bank is not settled at the moment due to the breed properties of the pig. When the in vitro storage of the propagating material of pigs has been worked out, the group of donor animals will be determined rom the individuals kept in nucleus stocks by MOE in accordance with the preservation plan to be worked out.

 

E) The order of the performance test

Performance test for fecundity and rearing (SZFTV)

This test requires the recording of the following parameters:
  • The identification of the sow,
  • The date of mating and the identification of the serving boar,
  • The date of litter (abortion),
  • The number of piglets born live and per sex,
  • The number of dead piglets,
  • The quality of the one-day-old litter with grades given from 1 to 5,
  • The identification marks at piglet age,
  • The quality of the litter at the age of 21 days with grades given from 1 to 5,
  • The number of weaned piglets per sex,
  • Possible genetic disorders.

The data are to be recorded and the performances are to be expressed in the ways prescribed by the code.

 

Review of external characteristics

The review of external characteristics is obligatory before including the animal in the breeding stock, though only a general impression score is given at this stage. Detailed reviews of the external characteristics of boars are to be conducted until the age of one year, while those of sows are to be finished before the second litter at the latest - annex 2. The scores of the review are to be recorded in the register.

Aspects to review:

  • head
  • body
  • contour, development
  • the set of the legs
  • pigmentation
  • colour of the bristles
  • the quality of the bristles
  • general impression

Each characteristic can be awarded scores from one to five with decimal values to express individual variations:

  • 1 = substandard
  • 2 = weak
  • 3 = mediocre
  • 4 = good
  • 5 = excellent

The judgement of conformation may be conducted by a specialist of the breeding association.

Undesirable though permitted defect in the characteristic features of the breed and the ones that entail exclusion from breeding are indicated in the description of the breed. In the course of reviewing the external characteristics features indicating development, bone structure and sex are to be assessed.

Inadequate development, heavy formal defects, leg defects, lumbar irregularity, underdeveloped or irregularly positioned nipples, lack of secondary sex characteristics, etc. results in exclusion from the gene preservation.

 

F) The order of registration

The breeder is to conduct the recording of the data to be entered into the register (pig book) by using uniform data sheets. The farm that is being supervised should hold the following basic documentation:

 

Name Deadline for the recording of data Form
mating records immediately annex 3
progeny records within 7 days annex 4
pig-pen records (or sty book) immediately annex 5
purchase and sale sheet (designationsheet) immediately annex 6
designation sheet for porkers immediately annex 7
culling records (boar, sow) monthly annex 8

 

Since the spread of the computerised recording system the supply of data has been continuous. The registration and transfer of computerised data in the data bank of MGSZH can be conducted at the location of the stock farm or by regional keepers of the register. The data for propagating and production are transferred to the seat of the association from the central data bank. The evaluated data are sent by MOE to MGSZH and the members of the association every year.

The accuracy of the propagating and production data is checked by the regional supervisors, leading specialists of MOE and MGSZH supervisors. Regional supervisors of MOE conduct site visits to smaller stock farms (20-50 sows) at least four times a year and to larger ones (100-300 sows) as circumstances require, every 1-2 months.

Due to the observance of the mating plan, the rearing of young boars, the selection of boars and the survey of boars visits to /supervision of boar producing stock farms are especially important and are conducted almost every month.

The form (individual sheet) in the pig book is to contain the data for the origin and performance of the breeding animal, as well as the performances and grading of its ancestors. The forms of the pedigree stock should be made available in the farm and its up-to-date state can be ensured by entering data by hand.

The keeping of the pig book is the liability of the recognised breeding association. It is to register or to have the data registered in the pig book (sow and boar individual sheets) for each breeding plant involved in the pig book supervision programme. The recognised breeding association is to have the computerised registry system with the data available at its headquarters.

The basic pig book forms and documents are to be preserved; they must not be discarded or destructed. The quarterly closing data and statistical reports are to be sent to the registered office of MGSZH.

 

1. Filling out the breeding certificates

If the breeding and authenticity conditions meet the requirements, any breeding animal sold is to be issued with a certificate of origin at a charge at the order of the breeding association. All the necessary information (individual sheet, floppy with data) of any breeding animal sold breeding plants involved in the certified supervision. In order to avoid issuing the same documents repeatedly, the breeding association has to keep a strict record of all certificates of origin it has given out.

To make up for lost certificates of origin, the breeding association will issue office copies of the particular documents.

Any recognised breeding organisation may accept animals to belong to the breed if the animals have their own authentic certificates of origin. For any own breeding boar involved in the breeding programme a certificate of origin has to be filled in. Authentic certificates of origin can only be issued to the deadline for animals that are marked according to the regulations and are clearly identifiable.

Trueness to variety has to be certified on the basis of the individual origin of the animal. On the basis of the registers for the past decade the individual animal has to be of a known origin up to 3-4 lines of ancestors.

 

2. The order of issuing certificates for slaughter animals

Under the joint regulation on the marking of foods of 86/2007.(VIII. 17.) FVM–EüM–SZMM „ if the name of the food produced and distributed in Hungary contains the name of or a denomination related to an indigenous animal, the producer of the food or the distributor of the food has to have a trueness to variety certificate issued for the particular individual by the organisation of the breeder which is recognised in Hungary. The certificate has to contain the identity number of the individual animal, the identity number of the farm of its origin and in the case of a crossbred animal the composition of the breeds as well.

 

The procedure of the issuance of the certificate:

The mangalica breeder is obliged to individually identify and mark his/her slaughter pigs for transportation before they are sold. The readings of the individual identifications taken have to be transferred to the centre of MOE on the form established for this purpose electronically.

If the data are found to be correct during supervision the certificate is issued - annex 9 - which is sent to the MOE centre by post. Thee breeder delivers the pigs together with the certificates already.

The representative of MOE s entitled to check the ear notches of the pigs both to be sent for slaughter and delivered to the slaughterhouse on the spot.

If the representative of MOE obtains knowledge of tradingg in pigs under the name of mangalica without possessing certificates issued by MOE he shall call upon the interested parties to observe the law voluntarily. If the call is without success and the wrongful act is repeated the breeding organisation shall notify the authorities responsible officially and ask for legal action.

 

G) The method for identifying and marking animals

The basis for identification in the pig book is the number of the breeding plant, the code of the breed and the individual identification marks.

Breeding plant numbers may be obtained only by breeding plants that have purebred mangalica breeding stocks; the whole stock is registered in the pig book, the plant observes the standard breeding programme and is a member of a recognised breeding organisation.

Breeding plant numbers are issued by MGSZH on the recommendation of the breeding association.

Marking is to be carried out by the breeder and each and every piglet born has to be compulsorily marked. The markings have to be permanent and well-visible, and may be done by ear notching or ear-marking in accordance with regulations laid down in the code of performance testing. As a supplementary mark the pedigree stock may be marked electronically (ear notching) and pigs for slaughter (the end of the leg) as well. The supervision of the execution of the marking is the duty of the breeding organisation.

Marking of piglets

Piglets may be marked by either ear notching or ear marking. Microchipping may be used as a supplementary mark. With F1 porkers the use of virtual notching is allowed if a microchip is used. The marking is the duty of the owner and the breeding organisation is responsible for the professional execution of the marking and keeping the deadline. The values of the ear notch are illustrated in annex 10.

Ear notching

The marking is done by ear notching starting with 1st January and going on continuously. In the computerized register besides the ear notch marking the last two digits of the year of birth are also indicated in the form of “per”.

Control number

Control numbers are to be continuously issued. For sows they have to be issued at the first littering at the latest and boars have to get them before the first mating.

Markings have to be renewed if it is necessary. Both marking and the renewal of the marking are the duties of the owner, while the breeding organisation is responsible for supervising that the marking is executed to the deadline and in a professional manner.

 

H) Control of the origin

Origin can be checked in accordance with the marking and identification described in point G) and the same data can be verified if they are recorded in the official standard documents. If the required data are not recorded in a satisfactory manner or marking errors make the identification of the origin difficult, it has to be checked on the basis of the results of a blood test carried out later (or the results of a DNA test).

The recording of genetic defects, taints is possible either directly or in connection with the check of the origin. The recording of genetic defects is assisted by the codes indicated in annex 11.
II. Expectations as regards keeping technology for "IN SITU" mangalica stock farms

Practitioners of traditional and modern animal husbandries cannot neglect the interaction between the genotype and the environment, the effect of the environment on the production, external characteristics and of course the genotype. Whether the increase of the performance of modern breeds or the preservation of the representation of the past is the objective, the above fact has to be taken into consideration. This is why the maintenance and the preservation of indigenous breeds and species is the most successful under in situ conditions. And also the mangalica, which was developed 100-200 years ago, is kept most easily in its original form and state in an in situ environment, which is possible, however, only at economic sacrifices. If all the indigenous breeds are used for commodity production and demands are set, we are bound to make allowances both as regards the genetic composition of the breed and the provision of environmental conditions, i.e., it is more profitable to keep these animals in an in situ environment. This is the reason why no divergence from the in situ keeping is allowed on nucleus and propagating farms and it is only possible on commodity producing farms to the extent permitted by MOE.

 

1. The keeping of breeding boars

For breeding boars individual housing is recommended, in which case 3 x 2 = 6 m2 covered resting place and a free runway of the same size are required. The pen should have enough light, a solid dry floor and there should be straw bedding in the resting area. In the case of a harem-like keeping the boar can be kept in the sow group in a large runway in the house of the sows, or temporarily on the pasture. It is recommended that one boar should be apportioned to 15-20 sows.

Feed should be given in rations with a view to the age, condition, the stress and the weather by giving the animals 2-3 kg of concentrates every day. Water of potable water quality should be made available constantly.

 

2. The keeping of brood sows

a) The rearing of gilts:

In excess of a body weight of 35 kg they should be kept in large groups (20-25 heads) in pens with a solid, dry floor where each animal has 2 m2 of resting space with straw bedding and 4 m2 of runway. The runway may have a solid floor but ideally it is as large a pen with a grass or sand floor as possible. The feed should be given in rations considering the age, the body weight and the condition of the animal. It is expedient to solve the problem of watering by using automatic waterers. If the animals are kept in a pen with a ground floor or on a pasture, internal and external exemption from parasites should be conducted with extra care every 3-6 months.

b) Insemination of sows:

Mating can be conducted by hand or in a harem-like fashion. The first insemination is recommended at the age of 9-12 months, with a body weight of 100-120 kg in a good breeding condition of the sow. Under individual authorisation artificial insemination may also be used followed by individual placement for 28-35 days and ultrasound examination of gestation.

c) Sows in farrow:

For forty days after the insemination individual placement in pens with a solid floor on straw bedding is possible. Although this keeping qualifies as ex situ keeping minimisingfoetus death, the more successful embedment and consequently the larger litter size ensure economic advantages. Following this, sows are kept in groups compulsorily, in pens where they have at least 2 m2 of resting space with a solid floor with straw bedding and at least 10 m2/ sow of runway. The runway may have a solid floor but a larger pen with a ground floor is better. Feed should be given in rations considering the stage of the gestation, the body weight and the condition of the sow. Feeding arable land by-products and fresh and fermented forage supplementation is recommended due to their economic and physiological effects. Good quality drinking water is to be provided from automatic waterers if possible. Exemption from parasites should be conducted with extra care every 3-6 months.

d) Sow with a litter:

The dropping box can either be a traditional one with straw bedding or it can have a slatted floor. A temperature of 16 Co should be ensured with good ventilation. If the temperature is lower, more straw bedding is necessary. The individual feeding requirements of the nursing sows have to be solved by giving them moist feed and a permanent supply of water. Weaning is done after a minimum of 21 and a maximum of 42 days following littering.

 

3. Keeping of piglets

a) Suckling pigs:

The dropping box can either be one with straw bedding or it can have a slatted floor. It is recommended to supply the dropping box with separate waters, feeders and resting places for the piglets. Heating is recommended in well-founded cases. Removing teeth and giving iron injections is allowed. With purebred piglets the removal of tails is forbidden. Ear notching should be done 7 days after birth and boar piglets meant for slaughtering should be castrated within 30 days. Accustoming to feed should be done with the help of automatic feeders and waterers in a rationed form.

b) Weaned piglets:

From weaning until a body weight of 35 kg keeping is allowed on straw bedding and a solid floor or on a slatted floor and the runway is recommended. Regulated temperature and ventilation are obligatory. The distribution is a maximum of 2-3 piglets per square metre. Feeding should be done from automatic feeders and water is to be provided from automatic waterers.

 

4. Keeping of fattening pigs

It is expedient to keep fattening pigs in large groups (20-50 heads) in pens with a solid floor and straw bedding. Each fattening pig should have at least 2 m2 covered resting space and at least 2 m2 runway with a solid floor. Keeping fattening pigs without runways is not permitted. Feeding should be done in rations or ad libitum with automatic feeders and automatic waterers are to be used for watering the animals.

The breeding programme was compiled by:

Dr. Péter Szabó - secretary
László Kürti - head breeder
Péter Tóth - president

Debrecen, 15th April 2009

III. Annexes