Practitioners of traditional and modern animal husbandries cannot neglect the interaction between the genotype and the environment, the effect of the environment on the production, external characteristics and of course the genotype. Whether the increase of the performance of modern breeds or the preservation of the representation of the past is the objective, the above fact has to be taken into consideration. This is why the maintenance and the preservation of indigenous breeds and species is the most successful under in situ conditions. And also the mangalica, which was developed 100-200 years ago, is kept most easily in its original form and state in an in situ environment, which is possible, however, only at economic sacrifices. If all the indigenous breeds are used for commodity production and demands are set, we are bound to make allowances both as regards the genetic composition of the breed and the provision of environmental conditions, i.e., it is more profitable to keep these animals in an in situ environment. This is the reason why no divergence from the in situ keeping is allowed on nucleus and propagating farms and it is only possible on commodity producing farms to the extent permitted by MOE (Hungarian National Association of Mangalica Breeders).
1. The keeping of breeding boars
For breeding boars individual housing is recommended, in which case 3 x 2 = 6 m2 covered resting place and a free runway of the same size are required. The pen should have enough light, a solid dry floor and there should be straw bedding in the resting area. In the case of a harem-like keeping the boar can be kept in the sow group in a large runway in the house of the sows, or temporarily on the pasture. It is recommended that one boar should be apportioned to 15-20 sows.Feed should be given in rations with a view to the age, condition, the stress and the weather by giving the animals 2-3 kg of concentrates every day. Water of potable water quality should be made available constantly.
2. The keeping of brood sows
a) The rearing of gilts:
In excess of a body weight of 35 kg they should be kept in large groups (20-25 heads) in pens with a solid, dry floor where each animal has 2 m2 of resting space with straw bedding and 4 m2 of runway. The runway may have a solid floor but ideally it is as large a pen with a grass or sand floor as possible. The feed should be given in rations considering the age, the body weight and the condition of the animal. It is expedient to solve the problem of watering by using automatic waterers. If the animals are kept in a pen with a ground floor or on a pasture, internal and external exemption from parasites should be conducted with extra care every 3-6 months.
b) Insemination of sows:
Mating can be conducted by hand or in a harem-like fashion. The first insemination is recommended at the age of 9-12 months, with a body weight of 100-120 kg in a good breeding condition of the sow. Under individual authorisation artificial insemination may also be used followed by individual placement for 28-35 days and ultrasound examination of gestation.
c) Sows in farrow:
For forty days after the insemination individual placement in pens with a solid floor on straw bedding is possible. Although this keeping qualifies as ex situ keeping minimising foetus death, the more successful embedment and consequently the larger litter size ensure economic advantages. Following this, sows are kept in groups compulsorily, in pens where they have at least 2 m2 of resting space with a solid floor with straw bedding and at least 10 m2/ sow of runway. The runway may have a solid floor but a larger pen with a ground floor is better. Feed should be given in rations considering the stage of the gestation, the body weight and the condition of the sow. Feeding arable land by-products and fresh and fermented forage supplementation is recommended due to their economic and physiological effects. Good quality drinking water is to be provided from automatic waterers if possible. Exemption from parasites should be conducted with extra care every 3-6 months.
d) Sow with a litter:
The dropping box can either be a traditional one with straw bedding or it can have a slatted floor. A temperature of 16 Co should be ensured with good ventilation. If the temperature is lower, more straw bedding is necessary. The individual feeding requirements of the nursing sows have to be solved by giving them moist feed and a permanent supply of water. Weaning is done after a minimum of 21 and a maximum of 42 days following littering.
3. Keeping of piglets
a) Suckling pigs:
The dropping box can either be one with straw bedding or it can have a slatted floor. It is recommended to supply the dropping box with separate waters, feeders and resting places for the piglets. Heating is recommended in well-founded cases. Removing teeth and giving iron injections is allowed. With purebred piglets the removal of tails is forbidden. Ear notching should be done 7 days after birth and boar piglets meant for slaughtering should be castrated within 30 days. Accustoming to feed should be done with the help of automatic feeders and waterers in a rationed form.
b) Weaned piglets:
From weaning until a body weight of 35 kg keeping is allowed on straw bedding and a solid floor or on a slatted floor and the runway is recommended. Regulated temperature and ventilation are obligatory. The distribution is a maximum of 2-3 piglets per square metre. Feeding should be done from automatic feeders and water is to be provided from automatic waterers.
4. Keeping of fattening pigs
It is expedient to keep fattening pigs in large groups (20-50 heads) in pens with a solid floor and straw bedding. Each fattening pig should have at least 2 m2 covered resting space and at least 2 m2 runway with a solid floor. Keeping fattening pigs without runways is not permitted. Feeding should be done in rations or ad libitum with automatic feeders and automatic waterers are to be used for watering the animals.
Ministry of Rural Development
Agricultural Economy, Supervision of
the food chain, Rural development, Environmental protection, Water management