The process of mangalica boar production 2011-2014
An overview of the boar raising farm
Photos of the boar raising plant
Experiences of placing out breeding boars
The young breeding boar production plan of MOE for 2013
The young breeding boar production plan of MOE for 2014
The raising of young breeding boars was conducted in our association in an unchanged form from 1994 to 2011. The head breeder and the keepers of the register selected better plants and breeders of lines with „rarely” few individuals and asked them to produce and raise boar piglets on the basis of purpose-mating. At the beginning the boar piglets produced in this way were marketed freely and on demand to the breeders. The head breeder made decisions on the choice of the subsequent lines. Individuals with defective appearance – if the keepers of the register had the opportunity to judge it – were excluded from the sale.
The Farmer Expo exhibition of 2008 meant a change in the boar raising and trade of the association. The management of the association designated and delivered to the fair 38 boars with the help of their breeders. The professional jury of 5 expressed their satisfaction in the record as regards the conformation and appearance of the animals and only two animals were rejected the inclusion in breeding.
The other fundamental change in the organisition of breeding and the support to the breeders is that 28 out of the candidate young breeding boars were purchased by the association and placed them to well operating breeding farms under a two-year contract, which also stipulated the obligation to keep the animals.
The boar placement campaign proved to be a successful initiative that was well-accepted by our members. Until the spring of 2010 there was only one remark in connection with the initiative.
78 breeding boars were placed out in 18 months, which means that about 70% of our members got young boars and there is a ratio of 70-80 sows per one boar. According to our calculations we can meet all the requirements for boars once in three years. Also, the boars can be used for three years and so a keeping obligation for three years can be stipulated from 2011. From the membership fees and certificates of origin charges paid over three years at least 50% is reimbursed to our members in the form of boar placements. The membership fees paid by the members who keep 30 sow and do their jobs well have equalled the sums of the subsidies since the subsidisation project was started and this applies to over half of our members.(Calculating with the HUF 100 thousand per boar ales price valid at that time.) The breeders keeping 100 sows can get a boar every year. After having established the three year rotation the system can sustain itself.
In order to moderate the demand for boars young boars were placed out to the same breeders (depending on the size of the farm) for the second time and not as second boars if a considerable increase in the number of red or swallow-bellied mangalica sows (20-30 heads) was established. The increase in the number of blonde mangalica sows did not entail an automatic boar placement. According to the decision of the management, which was confirmed by the general assembly, the support provided by the boar placement could not exceed the amount paid in the form of the membership fee and the charges for the certificates of origin either by members or at the level of the association. The small-scale breeders with 10-20 sows had to aim at having their boars in a good condition after three years (weight, condition, wear) so as to be able to change them with owners of other stock farms of a similar size with the knowledge or on the recommendation of the keeper of the register or the head breeder (the administration of the change in lines.). Thus, boars in good condition have to work two more years because a breeder with 20 sows can get a „new boar” free of charge after five years.
The breeder setting up in breeding can buy the first boar and it is only after 2 or 3 years, when he has proved that he is suitable for breeding mangalicas, can he be considered for a first replacement boar in the form a placement. The placement of boars cannot be automatic and mechanical. This means that the placement of boars is not something that is a due to our members but something that can be given in recognition of long-lasting continuous work by the association. If our members meet all the tasks in gene preservation that is allocated to them, the association will meet the breeding boar requirements of each and every breeder in time and due proportion. For this reason the placement of boars is decided jointly by the secretary and the head breeder under the recommendation of the keepers of the register. The members should not, therefore, disturb the head breeder with requests of this kind and should turn to the keeper of the register and indicate it in the form for the control of the plant. Apart from exceptional cases (death of the boar, barrenness) should not be of an ad hoc nature but should be planned in advance as it has been prepared by the head breeder for the coming five years.
Only the boar demand approved by the management and recommended to be produced by the head breeder by considering the genetic variability and equilibrium of the lines can be produced by the selected breeders. We only do a good job if the supply and demand of boars is approximately equal. The inclusion in the breeding programme of any boars without prior agreement and reconciliation is forbidden even in one’s own farm.
Anybody who does not meet the minimum requirements as regards gene preserving tasks and does not fulfill his membership duties, e.g., misses the individual marking of animals, fails to meet his information supply duties, to pay the membership fee and to obtain certificates of origin and does not require or only occasionally ask for porker certificates and sells his animals mostly as piglets of unknown origin cannot be part of the boar placement programme.
1. At the request of the association expecting to replace its boar produces 3-4 purebred litters from the given boar by purpose mating to time. The two heads of 2-3 month-old, well developed, healthy, possible half-brother young boars of 15 kg weight and with excellent appearance are purchased by the association. The breeder is designated according to two considerations: a) as regards the boar of the given line, the stock-farm is expecting to replace its boar, b) there is a need for the boar offspring of the given line for the breeding at another stock-farm.
The timetable of the activities:
• insemination: between 21st February and 21st April,
• expected farrow: between 15th June and 15th August,
• delivery: between 15th September and 15th November,
• closing, evaluation: between 15th July and 15th August the next year.
2. The Association delivers the piglets to the farm of its member, Zoltán Kövér in Tetétlen. The animal health status of the young boars and the place of origin are guaranteed by the breeder by having done the regular control blood test of the sows and the boar on his farm at half time between the piglets are born and delivered. In the case of one young boar delivery per year the blood test of the breeding stock is reasonably timed according to this delivery on the farms designated, which concerns 20-30 breeders, i.e., 20-25% of all the farms.
The costs of delivering the piglets are reimbursed by the association. In order to economise in in the costs it is expedient to concentrate the production of young boars in time and organise their delivery to the central farm in the form of a round trip.
3. Zoltán Kövér undertakes to fatten the two pigs per breeding boar delivered to his farm to a live weight of 90-120 kg in 7-8 months. The young boars are kept individually if possible or in small groups (6-8 heads) and are fed with a feed mix prepared by using an agreed upon formula. In addition to accommodating, feeding, taking care of and attending to the animals he also deals with their health status, organises blood tests, shows preparation and transportation to exhibitions.The development of the piglets is checked every month by way of weighing them individually. The differences in the growth and fattening performance of the individuals belonging to different breeds and lines can only be caused by the differences in their inherited properties. The individual own performance tests of the young boars are done in this way before they are introduced in the breeding programme. It is always the individual with a higher performance and better appearance of the pair that is introduced into breeding and is delivered to breeders by the breeding committee.
4. The planned replacement of the 250 boars of the three breeds depending on their age, performance and health status as well as the extra demand for extra 80 boars resulting from the expansion of the stock mean that 70-80 young boars have to be produced annually over the coming four years in addition to the usual boar production of Olmos és Tóth Kft.
5. The costs of the keeping, feeding, raising, animal health and blood tests of the young boars are accepted by the association by signing the contract after a tender proposal. The costs are paid after the end of the raising cycle when the young boars are placed out and sold.
6. The association pays HUF 90000 for the young boar with the better performance of the pair while the other pig is sold to Zoltán Kövér at the purchase price as a fattening pig and, which is sold after castration and fattening as a pig or slaughter.
The farm is located at the edge of Tetétlen village near Kaba and is owned by a member of the association, Zoltán Kövér. There are two animal houses and some social facilities.
The former cow shed has a traditional construction, excellent heat insulation, concrete floor, a large area and enough light. There are three (4x5 and 4x6 m) 20-24 m2 pens here in addition to a former pen which was used for farrowing. Feeding and watering are available in the pens. By dividing the larger pens a further 10-12 pens and a total of 33-35 pens can be established.
The half-brother pairs of pigs delivered at a live weight of 15-20 kg are placed in the 23 pens with a floor space of 6 m2 for a six week quarantine period. Individual supervision and possibly treatment can be conducted here.
On the area of the farm there is also a wooden animal house divided into five pens with five runways. 6-8 animals per pen, a total of 30-40 heads can be placed here up to a live weight of 100-120 kg.
In the case of one annual placement half the young boars are placed in the individual boxes and the other half are raised in groups of 6-8 animals. After the quarantine period, in the case of the young boars placed in the boxes feed conversion can also be calculated and evaluated in addition to the growth vigour. The effects of individual and group keeping on the appearance and constitution of the animals are also taken into account. A decision on the inclusion into breeding is always made on the basis of the comparison of the two (half-) brother boars. The individuals involved in the breeding programmer are illustrated in pictures 10, 11 and 12.
The finished young boars are evaluated and judged at the end of July every year. Afterwards the head breeder and the secretary decide about the placement of the boars and the assignment of the lines on the basis of the recommendations of the keepers of the register. The young boars assigned for breeding are delivered to the exhibition in Debrecen after individual blood test results are ready, where they are strictly judged and then transported to the receiving stock farms.
Following the complete vacation of the boar raising plant cleaning and disinfecting is conducted in the first half of September. Then the farm is repopulated until the middle of November. At this time the individual health certificates issued by the vet in charge for exemption of the delivering stock farm and the sow from Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, Aujeszky’ disease and PRRS are delivered together with the piglets. The piglets delivered are treated individually for internal and external parasites and are given different vitamins.By emptying and populating the farm once a year and observing the black-white principle animal health hazards can also be reduced considerably.
The action to place out boars to our members has proved to be an accepted and a successful initiative. Of course, this is no wonder.
So far there has only been one complaint in regard this initiative.
We have placed out 78 breeding boars over 18 months, which means that about 70-75% of our members received young breeding boars and the ratio is 70-80 sows per one boar placed out. According to our calculations we can meet all the demands for boars in three years. The boars can be used for up to three years and so, if our programme is continued, a keeping obligation of three years can be prescribed from 2011 onwards. From the membership fees totalling about HUF 20 million and about HUF 8 million from the certificates of origin fees we reimburse HUF 14 million, half the fees, in the form of boar placements to our members. The membership fees of and the grants to breeders who keep 30 sows and do their jobs well cancel each other out and this applies to over half of our members.
In order to moderate the increasing demand for boars, for reason of the limited availability of material resources, I suggest that for the second time and not as second boars, young boars should only be placed out to the same breeders if there have been considerable -20-30 heads - increases in the sow populations of the red or the swallow-bellied breeds. The increases in the populations of blonde mangalica stock automatically entail boar placements.
The breeder who is setting up in this business has to buy the first boar and should only be calculated with for boar placement when the replacement of his boar comes due after 2-3 years and when he has proved his suitability for breeding mangalica pigs. The placement of boars cannot be made into an automatic and mechanical procedure. Thus the placing out of breeding boars to our members is something that is due to our members but something that can be given! This is recognition of a continuous breeding activity, which can be judged best by the keeper of the register. For this reason the placement of boars is decided by the head breeder and the secretary jointly under the recommendation of the keeper of the register. Members are not supposed to disturb the head breeder with such requests; they should ask the keeper of the register for it and should indicate it in the plant monitoring sheet. Apart from a few exceptional cases (e.g., death, infertility) the request for a boar should not be of an ad hoc nature but planned in advance for the year to come, according to the schedule prepared by the head breeder for five years in advance. It is only recommended if the genetic variability and the equilibrium of the lines is considered and only the number of required boars that has been approved by the management can be produced by the breeders selected on the basis of the above. We do a good job if the demand for and the supply of the boars cancel each other. No boar may be involved in breeding, even in one’s own stock farm, unless he has been produced on a previous request or agreement.Anyone neglecting the minimum requirement related to the gene preservation tasks and not meeting his membership duties, e.g., misses the individual marking of the animals, does not provide information, does not pay the membership fee or take out the certificate of origin or asks for certificates for fattening pigs only occasionally and sells his animals en mass mostly as piglets in unknown ways, may not partake in boar placements.
Debrecen, 16th February 2010
Dr. Péter Szabó -Secretary
The basis for the culling and the replacement was primarily the age of the boars. The boars that were born in 2007 are between 5 and 6 years of age in 2013, which justifies their replacement. Unfortunately, we – the decision makers in given situations - do not know the appearance, the constitution and production properties of the given animals, which may be more important than the age of the animal in the case of selection. In future, we are going to ask the keepers of the register for individual evaluations of these animals – so-called recommendation founding the culling - before they are culled.
Similarly, recommendations are going to be requested according to lines, about the boars whose offspring is thought to be desired to be included in breeding boars and of course about the ones whose offspring is not wished to be bred, e.g., because they have faults with their appearance or lack some characteristic of the breed which is not wished to appear in the descendants. No boar descendants are necessary to be raised from boars that leave uneven, weak litters with a low vigour.
Our objective in the future as well is to increase the evenness of the number of boars within the lines. While the variance of the individuals within the lines sometimes and some lines were almost on the verge of extinction in 2005-2006, by now the situation has changed considerably.
A forced economic decision, an unexpected animal or human health problem may jeopardise the existence and survival of these lines. Starting from the idea that we should prevent the occurrence of a danger situation, we aim to decrease the variance between the lines in all the three breeds. This seems to be reflected by the closing number of boars in the plan for 2013.In comparison to the data for 3011 the variance between the lines and per breed decreased to half of its original value and shows values of CV=10,23-18,5 %.
In order to ensure genetic variance and prevent a bottleneck effect in 2011 and in 3012 16 and 26 breeders were involved in the boar production for 2013, respectively, in addition to Olmos és Tóth Kft. Thus during the two years mentioned 42 breeders, one third of the active animal keeping members took part in preserving the genetic value and diversity of the mangalica breeds.
As regards gene preservation we cannot rely on all the members because there occur some minor or more serious animal health problems e.g., PRRS or leptospirosis, which exclude a narrow layer of the breeders from taking part in raising boars. Unfortunately, the number of those who do not meet the required standards of raising boars due to keeping, feeding, professional or financial problems is higher. At the same time, being members, they make “rightful claims for boars” to the association. We can provide them with boars if they pay the contribution costs of raising the boars, which we pay to our members who provide base material – high quality young boars - for raising boars instead of non-fulfilling members. For this reason any member that does not take part in raising boars and only claims them can only get a young breeding boar after making the payment of the HUF 30-50 as a contribution to raising boars.
If the breeder, who is a member as well, applies for a boar 1-2-3 years earlier than his rightful “boar claim” depending on the number of sows he has, falls due, he can buy a young boar by paying HUF 50, 100 or 130 thousand observing his turn if there are boars available.
It can be laid down that as regards gene preservation, which is the most important chain-link in raising male animals, we advocate consistent principles:
- The primary requirement is that the numbers of registered mangalica boars and sows should increase and their quality should improve.
- In addition to a professional selection and raising of the replacement stock the timely culling also assists with improving quality.
- The evenness of the lines is an extremely stressed issue, which is proven by the fact that over two years there have been 10 replacements in four lines in the blonde mangalica breed, and nine replacements in two blonde and one red mangalica lines while no replacements are planned in Swallow-bellied lines of Csatár and Fecske. The culling of none individuals in line Betyár is counterbalanced by ten replacements.
- The ratios of the breeds are paid considerable attention to in raising boars well. The hard work of over one decade resulted in more than doubling the below 10% ratio of the swallow-bellied mangalica breed within the total stock.
- The ratio of blonde mangalica boars is to decrease to 58% from the earlier value of about 70%. The ratio of the swallow-bellied breed is to get near 20% and that of the red mangalica breed the 30% ratio while in comparison to the data for 2011 the numbers of boars in all the three breeds are to increase by 15.5%, 16.3% and 33.8% each.
The location distribution of raising boars is indicated by the fact that the 65 young boars from 26 stock farms are going to be raised on the farm in Tetétlen and this means 71.4% of the boar demand in 2013. It is Olmos és Tóth Kft. that produces 28.6% (26 pc) of the demand for boars.
Olmos és Tóth Kft. has played a decisive role in mangalica gene preservation for two decades and we do not intend to make changes in this trend.
The deliveries if young pigs of nearly the same age to the farm in Tetétlen during the year do not meet the unexpected demands for boars. This was the case last year when the delivery weights were between 4 and 60 kg. By arranging deliveries of pigs of one and the same or nearly identical ages we meet the animal health expectations and also focus on Farmer Expo and the public survey of breeding boars. For this reason, it is reasonable to formulate the re-quest that Emőd and Nyíradony as large-scale farms that produce throughout the year should make the deliveries of 15-25 young boars available during the year and so reduce the long waiting times for producers.
In 2013 almost 200 head of young boars ready for delivery were produced in 18 lines of the three breeds out of which we plan to deliver 94 to our central boar raising farm.
66 % of all the lines are concerned in the boar raising issue for 2014. If the plans for 2014 are realised, counting from the beginning of the central raising of boars. A total of 73 members, 60% over three years are going to be involved in the most valuable boar raising project of gene preservation.
In the boar raising programme only members who provide twice the number of pigs to be delivered after the boar designated, can take part. Depending on the age, weight and appearance of the piglet we decide on the spot as regards its suitability. Young pigs of a minimum of 2-3 months of age and at a live weight of 15-25 kg are included in the breeding programme. Any breeder that does not meet these requirements and so does not take part in gene preservation is provided with a young breeding boar at a price of HUF 130 thousand + VAT by the association.
The fact that the new boar raising system was started two years ago means that it is due to the lack of expertise and not adequate attention of some of the breeders that, e.g., instead of two young pigs they had young boars of 50-70 kg weight and also ones belonging to two breeds for raising boars. In other cases the two month old pigs weighed 4-6 kg and did not reach the live weight of 20 or in other cases 30 kg at the age of seven months. The top shock was when the red mangalica young boars offered for raising boars had white bellies, a sign that they had swallow-bellied fathers. All these shocks were experienced at a distance of 300-400 metres from the boar raising farm and they must not be repeated. Also, the keepers of the register are required to pay much more attention! Prior to the delivery they are requested to check the animals designated and inform the head breeder of their statuses.
We hope very much that the 4 or 5 negative and extraordinary cases are lessons to learn from for our members and we are not going to make the repetition of these cases possible. Luckily, most of our members fulfill the tasks undertaken in relation to gene preservation and keeping the register in addition to their everyday routine and shall co-operate with the management of the association.
We are going to provide all the support in accordance with the contents of the contract attached. Pages 3 and 4 of this contract lay down the data for purchasing young piglets and pacing out young boars. Within 1-2 years we would like to achieve that the filling in of the young boar purchase form should precede the contract for the boar placing contract in the case of more and more of our members. This is the only way for us to co-operate with success in the fields of gene preservation and help each other in the long term and in a sustainable form.
If a member of ours does not wish to take part in the gene preservation programme, does not co-operate with the keeper of the register and the management, his classification for support in the gene preservation programme of indigenous breeds may be changed or suspended.
The data for the 7327 sows and 258 boars of the 27 lines of the three breeds found with 121 breeders are contained in tables. The data are found in the tables arranged according to breeds, breeders, lines and sexes in detail and in a summarised form.
Even despite its status as a Hungaricum, the breeding and keeping of mangalica pigs can become more economical if its shortfalls as regards its current prolificacy and growth can be moderated in comparison to the modern breeds. This is the reason why a large number of our breeders include the breed in commodity and farm animal producing cross-breeding.
When utilising the mangalica breed we must not forget its good ability to graze and more modest requirements as regards feeds. This is the reason why both in the case of open and closed keeping the cross-breeding partner is the well-accommodating duroc breed.
If mangalica pigs are fed adequately the frequency of farrow of mangalica sows does not fall behind that of the duroc breed either in the case of purebred breeding or cross-breeding. The number of farrows per sow per year can reach a figure of between 1.8 and 1.9.
The processing industry requires a large number of pigs with a 50% gene ratio. The production of duroc x mangilaca F1 pigs is expedient because both the average litter size and the number of weaned piglets exceed those of mangalica pigs.
The growth and the finishing of pig raising have considerable effects on the profitability of pig husbandry. With modern pigs that have excellent feed conversion ratios the objective is the possible highest daily weight gain. The producer is driven by similar objectives in the case of lard-type or similar pigs as well.
According to our experimental data the mangalica weighs 54-60 kg at six months of age. We have to produce about 100 kg extra weight in the second, more intensive phase of the fattening period so that the animal will reach the slaughtering weight that is considered to be optimal today. The mangalica can reach a daily weight gain of 550-600 g soundly and can be sold as a mature but not old pig at one year of age at a live weight of 140-150 kg.The meat of the older pigs contains less water and more intramuscular fat. It has a high taste value because it is richer in flavouring and aromatic matters. The meat of such a pig is more suited to the production of dry products. Of course the sales price of these products is much higher and we hope the same is going to happen to the purchase price of the base material as well.
Ministry of Rural Development
Agricultural Economy, Supervision of
the food chain, Rural development, Environmental protection, Water management