The mangalica pig has a two-hundred-year old history in Hungary, within which 50 years are a success story. The end of the latter was marked by the fact that the number of registered sows fell from 18000 heads in 1955 to 243 in ten years and in another five years to 35-40 (0.2%) animals.
After the change of the regimes the latest stage of mangalica pig breeding can be called a successful sector within the animal husbandry. In 1994, after 64 years the Hungarian National Association of Mangalica Pig Breeders was established at the Agricultural University of Debrecen for the second time with twenty members, including six breeders. By 2008 this figure had risen to 150 members producing with 8600 controlled sows.
The increase in the size of the controlled stock justified the hiring of one full-time head breeder in 1998 and two register keepers in 1999, and another two register keepers in 2003, who assist with and monitor the breeding and registering activities of the association. By dividing the territory of the country into four regions the register keepers visit the 40-50 breeders in their areas at least once in every three months.
In 2003 Hungarian National Association of Mangalica Breeders compiled and published in Hungarian and English the “initial” pig register of the three mangalica breeds on the basis of ten years of work and declared the stock a closed one. The latest gene preservation research justified that the colour variants of the mangalica pig are the blonde-, the swallow-bellied and the red mangalica breeds.
In the not very distant past the mangalica breeds were bred in 53 lines. In opposition, the number of the lines that are live today is 27. So, the number of lost and extinct lines is 26 , i.e., 49%.
It was the curly-haired sumudia pig that played a major role in the shaping of the Blonde mangalica pig in the 1830s. The typical lard-type pig is characterised with unpretentious- ness and a good fat producing capacity. It has bristles that occur in all colour variants from grey to yellow and yellowish-red.
The Swallow-bellied mangalica came into existence later from the cross-breeding of mangalica pigs and the szerémségi (a region in former Hungary) pig. The bristle of the swallow-bellied mangalica is black on the back and the sides and the lower part of the body, the belly and the chin up to the corner of the mouth are white or silver-grey. The tail is also white and the tail tassel is black.
The latest variant is the Red mangalica pig, which was formed by using the szalontai pig and the újszalontai pig, crossbred with the mangalica pig at the beginning of the 20th century. The bristle of the red mangalica pig is a darker or a lighter shade of the reddish-brown colour. The bristle is thick and long and in winter it is curls and it is dense, in summer it is finer and shorter.
was prepared from the sing the fund from Ministry of Rural Development and the National Association of Mangalica Breeders to implement the pig strategy.
Ministry of Rural Development
Agricultural Economy, Supervision of
the food chain, Rural development, Environmental protection, Water management